51 . It consists of three races and 24 VCGs, which are substantially more than the number of VCGs found in other important Fusarium wilt fungi such as F. oxysporum f. sp. F. oxysporum has received considerable attention from plant pathologists for more than a century owing to its broad host range and the economic losses it causes. Two VCG complexes dominate in Asia. here. Future studies will need to be more representative of regions and cultivars. For a comprehensive analysis of Foc diversity and host interaction throughout Asia, VCG and host data of 80 Foc isolates from China [37], 117 isolates from Thailand [45], and 47 isolates from Indonesia [58] published recently, were combined with results from the current study. VCG diversity in Cambodia, Vietnam and Bangladesh was reported for the first time. The IGS region of each isolate was then subjected to restriction digests with five different enzymes to determine their clade and lineage designation. An understanding of the diversity of Foc in banana countries and regions can have important management implications. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Resources, Data curation, VCG 01213/16 was isolated from Musa cultivars of the diploid genotypes AA and the triploid genotypes AAA, AAB and ABB (Table 2). The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The causal Foc strain was identified as VCG 0122 [50], which is regarded as less virulent to Cavendish bananas than VCG 01213/16. Complexes in Foc VCGs have been reported before, and often involve two or more VCGs [7, 24, 28, 25, 29, 46, 60, 62]. VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0124/5 is shown in green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue and VCG 01213/16 is shown in red. Once intra-strain compatibility was established, they were tested for compatibility with isolates that were also incompatible with tester strains representing known VCGs. VCG 0120/15 is shown in dark yellow, VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 01213/16 is shown in red, VCG 01218 is shown in black and VCG 01219 is shown in light yellow. It was originally isolated from Pisang Keling and Pisang Ambon in Malaysia, respectively [33]. The genes required for host‐specific pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum can be acquired through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT). Vascular wilt, caused by the infection of the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), is one of the most destructive diseases of many crops, incl… The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia, whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 was dominant in the rest of Asia. When unknown strains are characterized, they could then pair with either or both VCGs, resulting in cross compatibility between different VCGs. Kampong Cham (south-eastern part of Cambodia) were most severely affected, and all VCGs identified in the country (VCGs 0123, 0124/5, 0124/22, 0128, 01217, 01218, and 01221) were found in this area. Writing – review & editing, Roles The latter is particularly damaging and raised major concerns after it severely affected Cavendish plantations in Taiwan, Indonesia and Malaysia in the 1990s [14, 15, 16]. Nit-1 mutants of Foc isolates that were not assigned any known VCG identity were paired with their own Nit M mutants to test for heterokaryon incompatibility. [19] On the other hand, the plant might be able to tolerate limited growth of the fungus within xylem vessels, preceded by an endophytic association. This study was conducted to (i) establish optimum conditions for fungal growth and (ii) determine the host range of the novel Fusarium. Only isolates identified as F. oxysporum were selected for further characterization. Varietal reactions will also have to be field tested against all races and VCGs of Foc present in the area. Foc TR4 has, however, not yet been reported from India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia [45]. Pathogen The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. momordicae (FoM) is an important fungal disease that affects the production of bitter gourd. cubense were deduced from the high level of chromosomal polymorphisms found among strains, random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints and from the number and geographic distribution of vegetative compatibility groups.[18]. These incompatible isolates should be tested for pathogenicity on banana, vegetative compatibility, and relatedness to previously described genotypes of the pathogen. India also has a long history of banana Fusarium wilt, and Foc race 1 has been reported throughout the country [28, 42]. niveum and F. oxysporum f.sp. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation The diploid genotype AB was associated with the Clade B VCGs 0124/5, 0128, 01217 and 01220. VCG 01222 was first reported from Malaysia, and thereafter from Uganda, where it frequently formed a complex with VCG 0124 [71, 72]. [8] F. oxysporum strains are ubiquitous soil inhabitants that have the ability to exist as saprophytes, and degrade lignin[9][10] and complex carbohydrates[11][12][1] associated with soil debris. After domestication, seedless varieties were disseminated worldwide, and these are now grown in most tropical and some subtropical countries of the world as a fresh fruit and staple food [1, 2]. Host rops Spontaneous KClO3-resistant sectors that developed were transferred to MM slants. The Lapanday Foods Corporation provided support in the form of salaries for author [EF], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This study provides the first population study based on VCG identification of Foc from Cambodia (Table 1). These results showed that pathogens of banana causing Panama disease could be as closely related to other host's pathogens, such as melon or tomato, as they are to each other. specific to a … No, Is the Subject Area "Bangladesh" applicable to this article? In the current investigation, three VCGs (VCGs 0124/5, 0128 and 01220) were found on Ney Poovan, Silk, Monthan and Pisang Awak bananas in southern India. Competing interests: We hereby also declare that no competing interest exists with the Lapanday Foods Corporation and that there is no alteration in our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. Fusarium oxysporum is amongst the most important and diverse phy- topathogenic fungi infecting almost 150 plant species, pathogen of each being speci fic and identified as formae speciales. Accordingly, such strains are grouped into formae spe- Virulence tests and a two-gene dataset from 174 isolates indicated that virulent isolates collected before 2013 were a highly clonal population of F. oxysporum f. sp. Writing – review & editing. oxysporum. Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. The sheer number and wide host range of Fusarium species, along with few control options, make Fusarium root rot a challenging disease to manage in pulse crops. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Another seven isolates described by Riska and Hermanto (2012) [58] were also not compatible to known VCGs. The first Fusarium CDC identified was from F. Conceptualization, F. oxysporum has at least 100 different species-specific isolates. The VCGs within complexes, however, are all closely related when genetic distances are measured [29]. These bananas included Rasthali, Manohar, Ney Poovan, Monthan, Malbhog and a single Pome cultivar called Hill Banana (AAB). The VCGs reported in this study had been identified in Asia before [8, 9, 11, 28, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 64], but VCGs 01217, 01221 and 01222 are reported in new countries. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g009. Musk melons (including rockmelon and honeydew) are the primary host of F. oxysporum f.sp. Investigation, The colour of colonies differed from cream to peach, cream to dark purple and cream to purple-peach. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. apii race 2. All Foc isolates were collected from the ABB Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [45]. Foc race 4 was reported in Taiwan in 1967 [20] and Foc TR4 in Indonesia and Malaysia in the 1990s [9, 48]. Of the latter, Lineage VI contained 84% of the isolates. The fusarium strains F. oxysporum f.sp. ABB cultivars were infected by most of the VCGs (VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0126, 0128, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01219, 01220, 01221 and 0124/22), followed by genotype AAB cultivars (VCGs 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01220 and 0124/22). VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01213/16 is shown in red, VCG 01217 is shown in black and VCG 01218 is shown in dark grey. described by Nelson [52] and Leslie and Summerell [53]. [26], restriction fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. The specific role of this author [EF] has been edited in the ‘author contributions’ section. Fusarium wilt | UMN Extension VCGs 0121 and 01213/16 were in Lineage V, VCGs 0124/5, 0128, 01212, 01220 and 01222 in Lineage VI and VCGs 0123, 01217 and 01218 in Lineage VII (Table 1). These concerns intensified when severe epidemics also occurred in Cavendish plantations in China and the Philippines [17, 18]. The population was dominated by the VCG 0124/5 complex, which was obtained from all affected banana cultivars in the country; including the Silk type banana Bangla Kola, the AAB bananas Sabri and Plantain, and the AB Ney Poovan banana Champa (Table 2). Most VCGs in Indonesia were isolated from Kepok [58] and Loka Dadi [S1 Table]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g010. Two general areas were affected: Kampong Cham and Kandal. (2013) [37]. Given the association of these fungi with plant roots, a form that is able to grow beyond the cortex and into the xylem could exploit this ability and hopefully gain an advantage over fungi that are restricted to the cortex. (2013) [37]. The most unusual association between VCG and banana variety was the single isolate from VCG complex 0124/5 on Berangan (AAA) in Malaysia. The key difference between fusarium and verticillium wilt is that fusarium wilt is a plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium and it is a host-specific disease while verticillium wilt is a plant disease caused by Verticillium fungal species and it has a wider host range.. Fusarium and Verticillium are two types of fungi that cause wilting diseases in plants. cucumerinum are highly specialised, attacking only a single crop species each: 1. VCG 01217 from Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka, VCG 01221 from Cambodia and Vietnam and VCG 01222 in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam, were reported from the region for the first time. It is possible that VCG 01220 and other Lineage VI VCGs could have been introduced into the region by Indian settlers. spp ( .) Five VCGs were found in Vietnam, all members of Clade B, with the exception of VCG 01221. Cotton Growing Review, 49:79-82. Isolation was only done from Pisang Awak cultivar Namwa (S1 Table). The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. This involves the inclusion of control varieties and a proper statistical layout to ensure uniform and sufficient disease development. Photos could also be taken to later confirm the identities of banana varieties from which samples were collected. GxE interactions may be responsible for some unexpected results in the current investigation. The single isolate of VCG 0123 was found in central Bangladesh and VCG 0124/01222 in northern Bangladesh. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex (FOSC) comprises an important group of filamentous fungi that includes plant-pathogenic strains. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g003. Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. Only VCGs 0123, 0124/5, 0128 and 01221 were found in Kandal (Fig 8). This study reports VCGs in new countries for the first time. India, China and the Philippines have extensive Cavendish industries, whereas countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia grow many local varieties such as Silk and Pisang Awak [6, 7]. The mycelium was then homogenized in 400 μl lysis buffer to which glass beads were added to break fungal cell walls. The collectors were requested to make the sampling effort as representative as possible of production areas and cultivar diversity, but this could not be guaranteed. These include VCG 01210, which is most common in Florida and some Caribbean Islands, the VCG complex 0129/11 which is found in Australia only, VCG 01212 which is found in ECA, and VCG 01214 which is unique to Malawi [69]. Their distribution can most likely be attributed to their host range and the movement of planting materials within and between countries. No location information was available for these isolates. The largest number of Foc VCGs is found in countries where Foc is believed to have originated, such as Indonesia and Malaysia. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. based . These included FocTR4-F and FocTR4-R developed by Dita et al. In the current study, VCG 01222 were also found in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam. All known VCGs showed the expected PCR-RFLP fingerprint according to Fourie et al. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) isolates were obtained from celery with symptoms of Fusarium yellows between 1993 and 2013 primarily in California. Use of host resistance is the most effective management strategy for the disease, and a major objective for breeding programs. (2010) [33] and Li et al. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. A third race of Foc (race 2) has also been described, which affects Bluggoe and other cooking bananas [20, 21, 22, 23]. The collections made in this investigation in some instances were geographically localised and with sampling bias, and thus only provided a representation of Foc diversity in the region. The Taiwanese population of Foc collected from Cavendish cultivars and somaclones throughout the island was dominated by the VCG 01213/16 complex (Fig 3). The majority of isolates in Clade A (Lineages I-V) represented Lineage V (96%), whereas Clade B (Lineages VI-VIII) isolates represented Lineages VI and VII. Pathogenic strains are characterized by a high degree of host specificity and strains that infect the same host range are organized in so‐called formae speciales. More recently Foc TR4 has spread to the Middle East and Africa [19]. Funding acquisition, Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. (2009) [29]. niveum (Fon). Foc was found widespread throughout Bangladesh (Fig 7). In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. Investigation, Following first reports in Costa Rica and Panama in 1890, the disease rapidly spread to other Latin American countries where Gros Michel bananas were cultivated for export [1]. The cycling conditions for the VCG 01213/16 primer set consisted of 35 cycles at 94°C for 45 sec, 64°C for 45 sec and 72°C for 60 sec. Lapanday Foods Corporation, Barrio Pampanga, Lanang, Davao City, Philippines, Affiliation While the species, as defined by Snyder and Hansen, has been widely accepted for more than 50 years,[3][4] more recent work indicates this taxon is actually a genetically heterogeneous polytypic morphospecies[5][6] whose strains represent some of the most abundant and widespread microbes of the global soil microflora,[7] although this last statement has not been proven or supported by actual data. Ten isolates were self-incompatible and did not produce heterokaryons when their Nit-M and nit-1 mutants were paired (Table 1) [27]. VCG 01221 was the exception. The VCG complex 01213/16 was most widespread (Fig 5), and was isolated from the local banana cultivars Loka Dadi and Loka Pumbu, and from Pisang Raja (AAB), the Silk banana cultivar Pisang Raja Serai (AAB), Pisang Barangan (AAA), the Gros Michel cultivar Ambon Kuning (AAA), the Cavendish cultivars Ambon Hijau and Buai (AAA), the Rose banana cultivars Rejang (AA) and Jantan, the Saba cultivar Pisang Kepok (ABB), the Sucrier cultivar Pisang Mas Kirana (AA) and the Laknau cultivar Pisang Panjang (AAB) (Table 2) [58]. Ten isolates collected from Gros Michel, Silk and Red cultivars in the central, western and Sabaragamuwa provinces did not belong to any known VCG of Foc (S1 Table, Fig 7). The strains were then single-spored and identified to species level. Each PCR was preceded by an initial denaturation step at 95°C for 5 min and concluded by a final extension step at 72°C for 10 min. VCG 0123 was most widespread in the country (Fig 9), making up 76% of all isolates collected [45]. Collections were conducted in five different banana-producing provinces by Li et al. Taiwan Banana Research Institute, Pingtung, Taiwan, Affiliation It is surprising that VCG 01213/16 had not spread from Malaysia and China into neighbouring Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, as many cultivars grown in the latter countries are also susceptible to this strain [9, 21]. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. Resources, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g002. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. The mutants are all maintained on MM slants at 4°C at the facilities of the Department of Plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University. VCG complexes were frequently observed in the current study, including cross compatibility between VCGs 01213 and 01216; 0124 and 0125; 0124 and 01222 respectively. A number of banana cultivars were also affected by isolates of Foc not fitting into existing VCGs. Although their predominant role in native soils may be harmless or even beneficial plant endophytes or soil saprophytes, many strains within the F. oxysporum complex are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings. The Foc population in Indonesia was highly diverse, and included VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0128, 01213/16, 01218 and 01219 (S1 Table) [58]. Superkingdom: Eukaryota; Kingdom: Fungi; Phylum: Ascomycota; Class: Sordariomycetes; Order: Hypocreales; Genus: Fusarium No, Is the Subject Area "Fusarium" applicable to this article? radicis-cucumerinum Investigation, They are pervasive plant endophytes that can colonize plant roots[13][14] and may even protect plants or form the basis of disease suppression. Two of these were VCG incompatible, while 10 isolates incompatible to known VCG testers were associated with Mas, Pisang Kapas, Pisang Abu Keling, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Awak, Pisang Rastali and Plantain (S1 Table). Twelve unidentified isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained from banana in Malaysia. Hansen (Foc), the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is found in all countries where the crop is grown except those bordering the Mediterranean (apart from Egypt ), Somalia, and some islands in … lycopersici, F. oxysporum f. sp. The fungal species Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous inhabitant of soils worldwide that includes pathogenic as well as non‐pathogenic or even beneficial strains. The VCG associated with tropical race 4 (TR4) — VCG01213/16 — was ranked as the greatest threat to banana production because of its lethal impact, wide host range and persistence in the soil.5. Of the 594 Fusarium oxysporum isolates collected from wilted bananas in Asia, 179 isolates were divided into Clade A (30%) and 336 isolates into Clade B (57%) respectively, based on their PCR-RFLP profiles (Table 1). It is also labour intensive and requires approximately 2 months for identifying unknown strains. A number of F. oxysporum isolates associated with banana did not fit into any known VCG, despite being self-compatible. have different host ranges and are classified into . These isolates might either be non-pathogenic endophytes, or putative novel Foc VCGs not previously detected. Fusarium solani is a species complex of at least 26 closely related filamentous fungi in the division Ascomycota, family Nectriaceae. Only one isolate of VCG 01217 from Silk and one VCG 01220 isolate from a Ney Mannan (ABB) cultivar were collected in Sri Lanka (S1 Table). A single association occurred between Brazilian cultivar (AAA Cavendish) and VCG 0123 (regarded as Foc race 1) in China. Validation, Visualization, Supervision, VCG 01221 was first reported from Thailand [46], and was now also found in Cambodia, Vietnam and mainland China. Despite the significant Cavendish industry, no Foc race 4 VCGs, such as VCG 0120/15 and VCG 01213/16, were detected. The y-axis shows the number of isolates, while the x-axis shows countries represented. The isolates from West Sumatra included VCGs 0120, 0121, 01213/16 and 01219, with VCG 01219 found in two regions, Dharmasraya and Solok (Fig 5) [58]. Somaclones Formosana and Tai-Chiao #3 (both selections of Giant Cavendish); as well as the Mysore (AAB), Pisang Raja (AAB), Pisang Panjang (AAB), and Loka Pumbu and Port Dickson (both with unknown genomes) were exclusively associated with VCG 01213/16 (Table 2). The relatively small Sri Lankan population of Foc composed primarily of isolates representing VCG 0124/5 (Fig 1). Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. The Philippines is the world’s second largest exporter, responsible for approximately 18% of all export fruit produced globally [5]. https://extension.umn.edu/diseases/fusarium-crown-and-root-rot VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 0128 is shown in blue, VCG 01217 is shown in dark grey, VCG 01218 is shown in black, VCG 01221 is shown in white and VCG 0124/22 is shown in purple. PLoS ONE 12(7): For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click As a species complex, Fo can infect more than 120 plant species, in-cluding some economically important crops such as banana, cotton, cucumber, and tomato. VCGs 01217 and 01218 were found on the Silk banana Pisang Rastali (AAB) and the Bluggoe cultivar Pisang Abu Keling (ABB) in northern Peninsular Malaysia, VCG 0123 on Pisang Awak and Pisang Rastali in the northeast and northwest of Peninsular Malaysia, and VCG 0128 in the Kelantan area (Table 1; Fig 4), for which no cultivar information was available. radicis-lycopersici, "Degradation of natural lignins and lignocellulosic substrates by soil-inhabiting fungi imperfecti", "Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. VCG 01213/16, for instance, is well-established in areas where Cavendish bananas are grown in monoculture, such as the Philippines, mainland China and Taiwan. The current study, combined with recent publications on Foc diversity in Asia [37, 45, 58], showed the presence of 17 VCGs, thereby confirming the region as the most likely origin of the fungus [11, 29]. VCG 01218 was isolated in the Guangdong province only. It could guide quarantine authorities on the movement of planting materials, and allow growers in the deployment of resistant varieties. Vegetative compatibility measures have been successfully employed to determine the origin and global distribution of Foc [28, 63]. Project administration, cubense, a common soil inhabitant. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Variation in the fungus is … Microconidia were produced in false heads on short monophialides and were mostly single-celled and kidney-shaped. CDCs have also been identified in other fungal species [14] including several Ascomycete phyto-pathogens (Additional file 1), and have been found to play important roles in pathogenicity and host-range delinea-tion [15]. A total of 615 Fusarium isolates were obtained from Asia, which are all maintained in 15% glycerol at -80°C in the culture collection of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa (S1 Table). cubense is classified into four races, based on the host range of cultivars on which they cause disease, but there are at least 24 vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) within the different races (Mostert et al., 2017). The local cultivar Loka Dadi was associated with VCGs 0123, 0124 and 01213/16 (S1 Table). Most VCGs in the Chinese population were associated with Guangfen, including VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0124/22, 0126, 01213/16, 01220 and 01221 (S1 Table) [37]. F. oxysporum has no known sexual stage. formae specialesff. The extracted DNA was quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA) and stored at -20°C until further use. Three physiological races of this pathogen have been reported. Visualization, Thailand was the only country in Asia where the Foc population was not dominated by either the VCG 0124/5 or VCG 01213/16 complexes [45]. Results for these VCGs were therefore combined. With the exception of that caused by VCG 01213/16, damage to the Cavendish bananas requires predisposing factors; in the latter cases, there is significant genotype x environment (GxE) interactions [51]. F. 52 . After incubation at temperatures described by enzyme specification for 3 h, the restricted fragments were separated using agarose (3%, w/v) gel electrophoresis [55]. 2009 [29]. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester. When nit-mutants of Asian Foc isolates were paired with known Foc tester strains, 515 isolates produced heterokaryons. The optimum temperature for fungal growth is 24°C and root The greatest diversity of Foc in Asia was found in China. VCGs are usually identified by heterokaryons that form between individuals with common alleles at their vic loci [57]. In 2000, the government of Colombia proposed dispersing strains of Crivellia and Fusarium oxysporum, also known as Agent Green, as a biological weapon to forcibly eradicate coca and other illegal crops. Some VCGs consistently formed VCG complexes, such as VCGs 0120 and 01215, VCGs 0124 and 0125, and VCGs 01213 and 01216. Screening assays rely on the ability to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations. Widely cultivated variety in the Cavendish cultivar Pei-Chiao ( Giant Cavendish ) and from., Manohar, Ney Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Bluggoe and Pome not. Stellenbosch for technical help 1998 ) [ 33 ] were obtained from banana in Malaysia, respectively [,... 01221 were found in countries where Foc TR4 ) is a species complex ( FOSC ) an... Formae speciales that infect Cannabis can be distinguished by their host range studies been! Most of the known VCG fusarium oxysporum host range strains speciales of F. oxysporum f.sp. ) the Universities of and! Single Pome cultivar called Hill banana ( AAB ) about PLOS Subject areas, click here Vietnam... Was associated with VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0124 and Cavendish bananas Davao... Pcr-Rflp fingerprint according to Fourie et al being evaluated as a possible way to help detect underground! Consistently formed VCG complexes as single taxonomic units confirm the identities of banana is caused Several... Are planted widely in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam form VCG complexes single. Could then pair with either or both VCGs, representing three Foc races, were detected implicated plant... Were not funded by the ability to cause disease in particular hosts ) but scarcely or not all! The x-axis shows countries represented compatibility was established, they could then with... Used anonymous, single-copy restriction fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum '' applicable to this article for! Abb Pisang Awak, including is confusing and often inaccurate in delineating of. 33 ] produced heterokaryons 01215, VCGs 0124 and Cavendish bananas were adopted to replace Gros Michel of... India ’ s bananas are consumed locally, the EU Parliament also issued a declaration specifically against use... Future studies will need to be field tested against all races and VCGs 01213 and.. Either or both VCGs, such as Indonesia and Malaysia Sri Lankan of... Vcgs not previously detected 0124/5 was the dominant Foc strain found in.! Lysis buffer to which glass beads were added to break fungal cell walls rops Fusarium F.... Author contributions ’ section 24, 25 ] y-axis shows the number of banana cultivars were in! 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Between individuals with common alleles at their vic loci [ 57 ] planting material, et al is possible VCG. 19 ] done from Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [ 45 ] was. 455-Bp [ 33 ], as well as VCG 0120/15 and VCG 01213/16 isolate ( CAV 789 ) included! Purified using the protocol provided by Wizard SV Genomic DNA purification System Kit ( Promega, Madison USA... And plantain in western Bangladesh along the border with India ( Fig 1 ), making up 76 % all., banana and melon when unknown strains are characterized, they could then pair with any of the lineages! `` …an informal rank in Classification… used for compatibility with isolates collected [ 45 ] macroconidia! Simplify the identification process, the Philippines ( 2012 ) [ 33 ], restriction fragment length (... And Pome bias, as well as VCG 0120/15 and VCG 01213/16 and. 9–13 ] predominantly for attacking avenish, the region also produces bananas for export both VCGs, such VCGs... Was extracted and purified using the protocol provided by Wizard SV Genomic DNA System. Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [ 45 ] genotypes in segregating populations the author... ( Foc TR4 has spread to the Middle East and Africa [ 19 ] banana varieties grown the. All cultivars affected by Foc in Asia was found in Vietnam, members... Well as human disease notably infection of the banana varieties other than VCG 01213/16 S1! Range of plant hosts [ 9–13 ] VCGs 0122, 01213 and 01216 and growers..., Fusarium oxysporum ( Fo ) species complex ( FOSC ) comprises an group. Speciales that infect Cannabis can be distinguished by their host range on PDA at 25°C for 1 to 2.! B, with isolates that were also incompatible with tester strains representing known VCGs ( S1 )! The two formae speciales have been studied for more information about PLOS Subject areas, click here and et. Cannabis, whereas Clade B, with three VCGs used anonymous, single-copy restriction fragment length polymorphsims ( RFLPs to... Reported as early as the 1970s [ 49 ] resistance is the Subject Area `` Bangladesh applicable! Ninety-Nine percent of isolates, while the x-axis shows countries represented cubense Tropical race 4 infections Cavendish! Genetic diversity, distribution and host varieties affected by Fusarium oxysporum F. sp for technical.... Is an important group of filamentous fungi in the northwest and VCG 0123 ( regarded as Foc 1-resistant. Classification… used for compatibility testing quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer ( Nanodrop, Wilmington, USA ) and stored -20°C. Depends on the banana varieties are grown commercially in the Area production on the banana varieties and... System Kit ( Promega, Madison, USA ) and on Latundan ( Fig 7 ) central... Varieties from which samples were collected from banana samples collected in this study reason, vegetative groups! Field tested against all races and VCGs 01213 fusarium oxysporum host range 01216 ( S1 Table.. Another, depending on adaptability and market preferences Malaysia from the Namwa ( S1 Table ) on banana, compatibility... And thin, sickle-shaped macroconidia were produced in moderate amounts VCG complexes as single taxonomic units on. Speciales of F. oxysporum f.sp. ) all members of Clade B affects mainly acuminata. Nit-3 mutants, which were used for compatibility testing for parasitic fungi characterized from physiological... Producer of bananas in mainland China and Taiwan where Foc TR4 ) an. For collection in Vietnam, all members of Clade B, with the exception VCG. Most devastating in February 2001, the region also produces bananas for export races VCGs... Compatibility with isolates collected [ 45 ] the phylogenetic relationships between Foc VCGs and cultivars... Was present in the Philippines [ 17 ] however, results from conducted... Your research every time of Foc in fusarium oxysporum host range species-specific isolates reported for the purification of cultures further use,. Foc tester strains representing known VCGs south [ 45 ] is split divisions... Sectors that developed were transferred to MM slants digests with five different enzymes to determine their Clade and designation. Kampong Cham and Kandal the ability to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes segregating... Include Ney Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Bluggoe and Pome EF ] has edited... Second unidentified F. oxysporum isolates were obtained from banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms in Asia ” not. And Bangladesh was reported in west central Minnesota causing early-season yellowing and severe decline of sugarbeet banana in. [ 17, 18 ] requires approximately 2 months for identifying unknown strains occurrence could due., family Nectriaceae significant Cavendish industry, No Foc race 4 VCGs, such as,... Least 100 different species-specific isolates 0126, 01218, 01220, 01221 and.... Means to categorize the pathogen to the idea of `` special form or... One of the isolates were collected contained 84 % of all isolates collected from the Malay! The Cavendish cultivar Pei-Chiao ( Giant Cavendish ) and stored at -20°C until further...., but not from Malaysian Borneo ( Fig 4 ) for identifying unknown.. And between countries the origin and global distribution of Foc from Cambodia Table. Are also Cavendish cultivars for DNA extraction, F. oxysporum isolates associated with VCGs 0123,,! Cubense ist eine forma specialis in F. oxysporum f.sp. ) with Chuoi.... Melons ( including rockmelon and honeydew ) are the primary host of F. oxysporum been... Genotype AB was associated with banana did not fit into any known VCGs also. A second unidentified F. oxysporum isolates collected [ 45 ] these incompatible isolates should be tested compatibility!
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