For more support and information, please see our Coronavirus Resources. Measures were also taken that concerned the areas of education and culture. In spite of originating from the region of Persis (better known as Persia) in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate societies in Asia Minor, Central Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman and Mughal literatures, among others. [3], A few Bactrian manuscript fragments have also been discovered, dating between the 4th to the 9th century.[6][7]. It aims to provide the student with the necessary skills for social interaction, as well as a basis for the study of modern literature. Course description If the Persians played more than just a passive role in Arabic literature, and even in the greater in alphabetical order by author's surname. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! “The hermit-poet of modern Persian literature, Bijan Elahi (1945–2010) was a modernist poet, a prolific translator of Eliot, Rimbaud, Michaux, Hölderlin, and the founder of Other Poetry, the leading avant-garde movement within Persian modernism. Often referred to as the father of modern Persian poetry, the ninth-century Persian poet Abū ‘Abdallāh Rūdakī (858–ca. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Modern Persian Literature Series: An Anthology of Modern Persian Poetry, tr. Among enlightened members of the Qājār elite the necessity of reforms was deeply felt. Persian literature (in Persian: ادبیات پارسی ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. The "Persian Literature" Section of Iransaga includes Classical and modern Poetry and Prose, and informative facts relating to notable writers, and poets both from the past and the present day. Persian literature differs from the common definition of “literature” in that it is not confined to lyrical compositions, to poetry or imaginative prose, because the central elements of these appear, to greater or lesser degrees, in all the written works of the Persians. For the literature of the country of Iran, see, Literature of languages in the Iranian language family, Old Persian, Parthian, and Middle Persian, "OSSETIC LANGUAGE i. Women’s writing has occupied a significant place in the development of modern Persian literature, although women’s increased literary production is far more evident in the post-revolutionary period. These efforts were aimed primarily at strengthening the army through better training and equipment and through the assistance of foreign advisers. The Department of Near Eastern Languages & Civilization’s office operations have moved online until further notice. One of them was. Volume IX: Persian Literature from Outside Iran. And thus the very circumstances which retarded the growth of a national Persian Literature were those which conduced … It is spoken predominantly by the Ossetians in Ossetia, a region split between Georgia and Russia in the Caucasus, and is used officially by the Russian republic of North Ossetia-Alania and the autonomous State of Alania. The book offers a balanced and interdisciplinary analysis of the rich and admirable contemporary poetry and fiction of a land long tormented by wars and invasions. [13][14], This article is about the literatures of languages in the Iranian language family. [2], Old Persian, the earliest form of the Persian language that is attested on several inscriptions from between the 6th to the 4th century BC, gave rise to Middle Persian in the 3rd century BC, which later produced a number of literary works centered in religious Manichaean and Zoroastrian books written between the 3rd to the 10th century AD. (books are softcover ... (The Stray Dog). With the unleashing of the "War on Terror" in the aftermath of 9/11, Afghanistan has become prominent in the news. Buy Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form (Iranian Studies) 1 by Wali Ahmadi (ISBN: 9780415437783) from Amazon's Book Store. Modern Iranian literatures include Persian literature, Ossetian literature, Kurdish literature, Pashto literature, and Balochi literature, among others. In general, these reforms sought to implement technical improvements. Common terms and phrases. Iranian literature, or Iranic literature,[1] refers to the literary traditions of the Iranian languages, developed predominantly in Iran and other regions in the Middle East and the Caucasus, eastern Asia Minor, and parts of western Central Asia and northwestern South Asia. A collection of short stories in Persian, including one of his best-known works, told from the point of view of a stray dog. Modern Persian begins with the teaching of the Persian alphabet. A. Karimi-Hakkak, Delmar, NY: Caravan Press and Bibliotheca Persica, 1978. Help support true facts by becoming a member. An influential author who introduced many modern literary techniques to Persian literature, Houshang Golshiri began writing fiction in the 1950s, although it wasn’t until the release of his first novel Prince Ehtejab (1969) that his talent was truly recognized. The course consists of seventeen units and favours … For newcomers, however, the best entry point seems to be an anthology published in 2006: Strange Times, My Dear: The PEN Anthology of Contemporary Iranian Literature , featuring short stories, novel extracts and poems from more than 40 contributors. The course IMES11070, Modern Persian Literature and Modern Iran, is a version of this course studying the texts in English translation for Postgraduate students. Behzaad Bahreyni 2. Fiction, 160 pages, 21 cm. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Parthian, another Middle Iranian language which dates to the first three centuries AD and was likely mutually intelligible with Middle Persian, was also used in Manichaean texts, and is regarded, along with Middle Persian, as one of the bases of the modern Persian language. Anyone interested in reading modern Iranian literature can now find a full range of works by different generations of Iranian writers. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Volume X: Persian Historiography. Persian Literature The Persian Language The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts). Click on a picture for an enlarged image. Baluchi Language and Literature", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iranian_literature&oldid=965935025, Articles containing Avestan-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 July 2020, at 09:17. Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. The Ṣafavids and the introduction of Shīʿism. [2][3][4] These include works attested from as early as the 6th century BC. These include works attested from as early as the 6th century BC. Nine volumes have been published in this series thus far. Elahi passed the last three decades of his life in seclusion in his house in Tehran. Text entirely in Persian with a preface in English. This series consists of translations of contemporary (20th Century) Persian writing. Middle Persian literature (see Tavadia, 1956, now superseded by Cereti, 2001, who also offers long excerpts in translation) other than Manichean includes first of all a word-for-word translation of the Avesta (even faithfully rendering Avestan syntax, which results in a clumsy, not to say at times obscure, Middle Persian version), accompanied by a Middle Persian commentary. History and description", "BALUCHISTAN iii. Modern Fiction & Literature. His name is based on his place of birth, the town of Rudak in Tajikistan. Modern Persian literature originates from its earlier forms in the 9th century, although it is also considered to be a continuation of works from much older stages of the language. For students needing advising, please write to nelcua@uw.edu to determine how we can best respond to your inquiries. Among enlightened members of the Qājār elite the necessity of reforms was deeply felt. appeared in Persia itself from the mid-18th century; it in turn was gradually subsumed into the modern period, culminating in the emergence of modern Persian literature with its close affinities with literary developments in the West. This led to the first attempts at a modernization of Iranian society. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form (Iranian Studies Book 5) (English Edition) eBook: Ahmadi, Wali: Amazon.com.mx: Tienda Kindle Persian Writing OLD PERSIAN 3. The Image of Arabs in Modern Persian Literature considers the problem of defining Iranianness, given Iran's ethnic diversity and history as an Islamic but non-Arab country. [4], The earliest surviving literary works in an Iranian language are that of the religious texts of the Avesta, written in Avestan, an Old Iranian sacred language. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form Iranian Studies: Amazon.es: Wali Ahmadi: Libros en idiomas extranjeros MODERN PERSIAN LITERATURE. In the early decades of the 19th century, contacts between Iran and Europe rapidly increased, while two wars with Russia (1804–13 and 1826–28) made apparent Iran’s military weakness. [9], Kurdish, spoken natively by the Kurds throughout Kurdistan and used officially by the autonomous Region of Kurdistan in northern Iraq and the autonomous federation of Rojava in northern Syria, has a literary tradition whose earliest works are those of Malaye Jaziri, a 16th century influential Kurdish poet from Jazira who used the Kurmanji dialect, and of at least one writer before him, in addition to the orally transmitted folk poetry and prose narratives. The Indian Subcontinent, Anatolia, Central Asia, and in Judeo-Persian. [3], Balochi, spoken natively by the Baloch people throughout Balochistan, has a literature starting from the early 19th century. Please email neareast@uw.edu for general information. Prior to the workshop, we were to read four modern Persian short stories so we could interface with the professor regarding his ongoing research into the sensory side of Persian literature. Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی ‎‎) is one of the world's oldest literatures.It spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost.Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus, and Turkey, as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has historically been the national language. Of the living Iranian languages, Persian has been the most influential. There is a great deal of variety both in the genres and themes employed by women writers. Persian literature spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. (Please click on the "titles" to enter each section.) Its sources often come from far-flung regions beyond the borders of present-day Iran, as the Persian language flourished and survives across wide swaths of Central Asia. 829 and, having found them, would send them to Baghdad to add lustre to the literary circle gathered round the Kalif. Modern Fiction & Literature. Modern Persian Literature Workshop I attended a Persian literature workshop with NYU professor Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami. Illustrated with maps and drawings. The course IMES10009, Modern Persian Literature, is a version of this course studying the texts in Persian. Various modern dialects of Persian are spoken natively by the Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Aimaqs, among others, of which three standardized variants, namely Western Persian (or simply "Persian"), Dari, and Tajik, are used officially in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. Modern Iranian literatures include Persian literature, Ossetian literature, Kurdish literature, Pashto literature, and Balochi literature, among others. Click on a picture for an enlarged image. Ossetian literature is based mainly on its prestigious Iron dialect, which is also used administratively. Iranian literature, or Iranic literature, refers to the literary traditions of the Iranian languages, developed predominantly in Iran and other regions in the Middle East and the Caucasus, eastern Asia Minor, and parts of western Central Asia and northwestern South Asia. After the fall of the Achaemenians the ancient tongue developed, in the province of Pars, into Middle Persian… Persian literature - Persian literature - Modern Iran: In the early decades of the 19th century, contacts between Iran and Europe rapidly increased, while two wars with Russia (1804–13 and 1826–28) made apparent Iran’s military weakness. NOW 50% OFF! Its sources have been within historical Persia including present-day Iran as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has been the national language through history. Gurani, spoken by the Guran Kurds mainly in Hawraman, also produced a literary tradition beginning in the 16th century. Ossetian, the only surviving descendant of the ancient Scytho-Sarmatian (Alanic) languages[8] that was written for the first time on an inscription dating from the 10th to 12th century, has a literary tradition that originates from the 17th century, with the first Ossetian book printed in 1798, although it also has a large body of older folkloric epics. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan does just that. In turn, and partly as a reaction, a neo-classical literary movement advocating a return to earlier aesthetic norms (bāzgašt-e adabi, q.v.) Publications: Modern Persian Literature Series. in alphabetical order by author's surname. Persian literature by Behzaad Bahreyni 1. Persian literatures 1. [5], Sogdian literature, dating mainly from the 9th and 10th centuries in Sogdia, was centered in Manichaean, Buddhist, and Christian texts. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan does just that. The book offers a balanced and interdisciplinary analysis of the rich and admirable contemporary poetry and fiction of a land long tormented by wars and invasions. Persian, which became the language of early literary landmarks such as Firdawsī’s Shāh-nāma and Bal‘amī’s translation and adaptation of Ṭabarī’s History, and which in turn developed into Modern Persian. [3], Khotanese literary works, written in a dialect of the Saka language that was used by the Saka Kingdom of Khotan on the southern branch of the Silk Road, centered mostly in Buddhist texts and were produced mainly between the 5th to the 10th centuries. The oldest part of these are the Gathas (𐬔𐬁𐬚𐬁, Gāθā, "hymn"), that are a collection of hymns believed to be composed by Zoroaster, the reformer of the ancient Iranian religion and the founder of Zoroastrianism, dating to the 6th century BC. -Old Persian- 522 BCE (Achaemenid inscription) -Islamic Conquest of Persia- 633 BCE -Sasanid State -Sasanian Empire- Sasanian Dynasty scribes and/or bureaucrats -Persians wrote in both Persian (Farsi) & Arabic History of Persian Literature 2. Modern Persian prose literature Snippet view - 1966. [10][11][12], Pashto, one of Afghanistan's two official languages and the second-largest regional language of Pakistan that is spoken natively by the Pashtuns, has developed a literature since the 17th or possibly the 11th century, producing works mainly through its prestigious coastal dialects. 941) is regarded as the first great literary genius of modern Persian and the founder of Persian classical literature. 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